According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, “The child with dyslexia has trouble almost exclusively with the written word. The child who has dyslexia as part of a larger language learning disability has trouble with both the spoken and the written word.”
The following chart provides an overview of the core language components an individual must use. Reading is the area directly impacted by dyslexia. Other challenges often related to dyslexia can impact any of the other core language areas and need to be addressed separately with the help of appropriate professionals.
A language-based learning disability includes a spectrum of difficulties connected to understanding and using both spoken and written language. Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability that specifically presents phonological-processing challenges. Other language-based learning disabilities include challenges with:
The effects of a language-based learning disability can be wide-ranging, and students with a language-based learning disability can have difficulties with any or all of these skills:
Many students with language-based learning disabilities also have weakness in one or more of the following executive functions:
While most people think of articulation issues when they think of a speech-language pathologist (also known as a speech-language therapist), any student experiencing the ongoing challenges of a language-based learning disability should be evaluated by and work with a trained speech-language pathologist to help with these underlying language weaknesses. If there are other language difficulties besides dyslexia, the student will continue to struggle with reading and writing until they receive help with the underlying language challenges, even if they receive appropriate intervention for the dyslexia itself. All aspects must be addressed in order, starting with the internal, executive functions, then moving to the language areas in general, and finally to reading and writing.
Like dyslexia, specific language impairment is another diagnosis that falls under the broad scope of language-based learning disabilities. Specific language impairment can affect both receptive and expressive language including:
Dysgraphia means difficulty writing by hand. The International Dyslexia Association’s “Understanding Dysgraphia” fact sheet states that handwriting and spelling struggles are central to dysgraphia. The author refers to challenges of writing thoughts on the page as being part of a separate challenge. Terms such as specific language impairment and oral and written language disability are labels frequently used to describe written/oral communication issues.
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